A Soldier's Story of the Siege of Vicksburg: From the Diary of Osborn H. Oldroyd Cover. Osborn Hamiline Oldroyd. For the author, - Seiten. Ausnahmezustand in New York. /db_data/movies/siege/scen/l/ki_bestofverviers.eu _ but to. give the assault before any attempt was made to carry intoetfect the ill-combined operation intended to-force him' vto raise the siege, (an operation.
The Siege Ausnahmezustand in New York
Terroristen greifen in Brooklyn einen Bus, ein Theater und das Hauptquartier des FBI an. Nach der Serie von Selbstmordanschlägen wird in New York der Ausnahmezustand verhängt und Queens von einem Armeeoffizier in ein Gefangenenlager verwandelt. Ausnahmezustand (Originaltitel: The Siege) ist ein US-amerikanischer Action- und Polit-Thriller aus dem Jahr von Edward Zwick mit Denzel Washington,. bestofverviers.eu - Kaufen Sie The Siege günstig ein. Qualifizierte Bestellungen werden kostenlos geliefert. Sie finden Rezensionen und Details zu einer vielseitigen. „Sugar Fright“-Kürbisschnitz-Wettbewerb. Erweckt dieses Halloween eure besten Siege-Kürbisse zum Leben und präsentiert sie mit dem Hashtag #PumpkinSiege. Ausnahmezustand in New York. /db_data/movies/siege/scen/l/ki_bestofverviers.eu _ but to. give the assault before any attempt was made to carry intoetfect the ill-combined operation intended to-force him' vto raise the siege, (an operation. and fittings to become pendants The siege coin – recognizable by the heraldic lion that grasps a liberty pole, flanked by the year '' – breaks the fiction.
bestofverviers.eu - Kaufen Sie The Siege günstig ein. Qualifizierte Bestellungen werden kostenlos geliefert. Sie finden Rezensionen und Details zu einer vielseitigen. „Sugar Fright“-Kürbisschnitz-Wettbewerb. Erweckt dieses Halloween eure besten Siege-Kürbisse zum Leben und präsentiert sie mit dem Hashtag #PumpkinSiege. Many translated example sentences containing "lift the siege" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations.
The stone and mud brick houses of Kot Diji were clustered behind massive stone flood dikes and defensive walls, for neighbouring communities quarrelled constantly about the control of prime agricultural land.
City walls and fortifications were essential for the defence of the first cities in the ancient Near East. The walls were built of mudbricks, stone, wood, or a combination of these materials, depending on local availability.
They may also have served the dual purpose of showing presumptive enemies the might of the kingdom. The great walls surrounding the Sumerian city of Uruk gained a widespread reputation.
The walls were 9. Later, the walls of Babylon , reinforced by towers, moats, and ditches, gained a similar reputation. In Anatolia , the Hittites built massive stone walls around their cities atop hillsides, taking advantage of the terrain.
The cities of the Indus Valley Civilization showed less effort in constructing defences, as did the Minoan civilization on Crete. These civilizations probably relied more on the defence of their outer borders or sea shores.
Unlike the ancient Minoan civilization, the Mycenaean Greeks emphasized the need for fortifications alongside natural defences of mountainous terrain, such as the massive Cyclopean walls built at Mycenae and other adjacent Late Bronze Age c.
Although there are depictions of sieges from the ancient Near East in historical sources and in art, there are very few examples of siege systems that have been found archaeologically.
Of the few examples, several are noteworthy:. The earliest representations of siege warfare have been dated to the Protodynastic Period of Egypt , c.
These show the symbolic destruction of city walls by divine animals using hoes. The first siege equipment is known from Egyptian tomb reliefs of the 24th century BC, showing Egyptian soldiers storming Canaanite town walls on wheeled siege ladders.
Later Egyptian temple reliefs of the 13th century BC portray the violent siege of Dapur , a Syrian city, with soldiers climbing scale ladders supported by archers.
Assyrian palace reliefs of the 9th to 7th centuries BC display sieges of several Near Eastern cities. Though a simple battering ram had come into use in the previous millennium, the Assyrians improved siege warfare and used huge wooden tower-shaped battering rams with archers positioned on top.
In ancient China, sieges of city walls along with naval battles were portrayed on bronze 'hu' vessels , like those found in Chengdu , Sichuan in , which have been dated to the Warring States period 5th to 3rd centuries BC.
An attacker's first act in a siege might be a surprise attack, attempting to overwhelm the defenders before they were ready or were even aware there was a threat.
This was how William de Forz captured Fotheringhay Castle in The most common practice of siege warfare was to lay siege and just wait for the surrender of the enemies inside or, quite commonly, to coerce someone inside to betray the fortification.
During the medieval period, negotiations would frequently take place during the early part of the siege. An attacker — aware of a prolonged siege's great cost in time, money, and lives — might offer generous terms to a defender who surrendered quickly.
The defending troops would be allowed to march away unharmed, often retaining their weapons. However, a garrison commander who was thought to have surrendered too quickly might face execution by his own side for treason.
As a siege progressed, the surrounding army would build earthworks a line of circumvallation to completely encircle their target, preventing food, water, and other supplies from reaching the besieged city.
If sufficiently desperate as the siege progressed, defenders and civilians might have been reduced to eating anything vaguely edible — horses, family pets, the leather from shoes, and even each other.
The Hittite siege of a rebellious Anatolian vassal in the 14th century BC ended when the queen mother came out of the city and begged for mercy on behalf of her people.
The Hittite campaign against the kingdom of Mitanni in the 14th century BC bypassed the fortified city of Carchemish.
If the main objective of a campaign was not the conquest of a particular city, it could simply be passed by. When the main objective of the campaign had been fulfilled, the Hittite army returned to Carchemish and the city fell after an eight-day siege.
Disease was another effective siege weapon, although the attackers were often as vulnerable as the defenders. In some instances, catapults or similar weapons were used to fling diseased animals over city walls in an early example of biological warfare.
If all else failed, a besieger could claim the booty of his conquest undamaged, and retain his men and equipment intact, for the price of a well-placed bribe to a disgruntled gatekeeper.
The Assyrian Siege of Jerusalem in the 8th century BC came to an end when the Israelites bought them off with gifts and tribute, according to the Assyrian account, or when the Assyrian camp was struck by mass death, according to the Biblical account.
Due to logistics, long-lasting sieges involving a minor force could seldom be maintained. A besieging army, encamped in possibly squalid field conditions and dependent on the countryside and its own supply lines for food, could very well be threatened with the disease and starvation intended for the besieged.
To end a siege more rapidly, various methods were developed in ancient and medieval times to counter fortifications, and a large variety of siege engines was developed for use by besieging armies.
Ladders could be used to escalade over the defenses. Battering rams and siege hooks could also be used to force through gates or walls, while catapults , ballistae , trebuchets , mangonels , and onagers could be used to launch projectiles to break down a city's fortifications and kill its defenders.
A siege tower , a substantial structure built to equal or greater height than the fortification's walls, could allow the attackers to fire down upon the defenders and also advance troops to the wall with less danger than using ladders.
In addition to launching projectiles at the fortifications or defenders, it was also quite common to attempt to undermine the fortifications, causing them to collapse.
This could be accomplished by digging a tunnel beneath the foundations of the walls, and then deliberately collapsing or exploding the tunnel.
This process is known as mining. The defenders could dig counter-tunnels to cut into the attackers' works and collapse them prematurely. Fire was often used as a weapon when dealing with wooden fortifications.
The Byzantine Empire used Greek fire , which contained additives that made it hard to extinguish. Combined with a primitive flamethrower , it proved an effective offensive and defensive weapon.
The universal method for defending against siege is the use of fortifications, principally walls and ditches , to supplement natural features. A sufficient supply of food and water was also important to defeat the simplest method of siege warfare: starvation.
On occasion, the defenders would drive 'surplus' civilians out to reduce the demands on stored food and water.
During the Warring States period in China — BC , warfare lost its honorable, gentlemen's duty that was found in the previous era of the Spring and Autumn period , and became more practical, competitive, cut-throat, and efficient for gaining victory.
The philosophically pacifist Mohists followers of the philosopher Mozi of the 5th century BC believed in aiding the defensive warfare of smaller Chinese states against the hostile offensive warfare of larger domineering states.
The Mohists were renowned in the smaller states and the enemies of the larger states for the inventions of siege machinery to scale or destroy walls.
These included traction trebuchet catapults , eight-foot-high ballistas , a wheeled siege ramp with grappling hooks known as the Cloud Bridge the protractible, folded ramp slinging forward by means of a counterweight with rope and pulley , and wheeled 'hook-carts' used to latch large iron hooks onto the tops of walls to pull them down.
When enemies attempted to dig tunnels under walls for mining or entry into the city, the defenders used large bellows the type the Chinese commonly used in heating up a blast furnace for smelting cast iron to pump smoke into the tunnels in order to suffocate the intruders.
Advances in the prosecution of sieges in ancient and medieval times naturally encouraged the development of a variety of defensive countermeasures.
In particular, medieval fortifications became progressively stronger—for example, the advent of the concentric castle from the period of the Crusades —and more dangerous to attackers—witness the increasing use of machicolations and murder-holes , as well the preparation of hot or incendiary substances.
Particular attention would be paid to defending entrances, with gates protected by drawbridges , portcullises , and barbicans. Moats and other water defenses, whether natural or augmented, were also vital to defenders.
In the European Middle Ages , virtually all large cities had city walls— Dubrovnik in Dalmatia is a well-preserved example—and more important cities had citadels , forts , or castles.
Great effort was expended to ensure a good water supply inside the city in case of siege. In some cases, long tunnels were constructed to carry water into the city.
Until the invention of gunpowder -based weapons and the resulting higher-velocity projectiles , the balance of power and logistics definitely favored the defender.
With the invention of gunpowder, cannon and mortars and howitzers in modern times , the traditional methods of defense became less effective against a determined siege.
Although there are numerous ancient accounts of cities being sacked, few contain any clues to how this was achieved.
Some popular tales existed on how the cunning heroes succeeded in their sieges. A more detailed historical account from the 8th century BC, called the Piankhi stela , records how the Nubians laid siege to and conquered several Egyptian cities by using battering rams, archers, and slingers and building causeways across moats.
During the Peloponnesian War , one hundred sieges were attempted and fifty-eight ended with the surrender of the besieged area. Alexander the Great 's army successfully besieged many powerful cities during his conquests.
Two of his most impressive achievements in siegecraft took place in the Siege of Tyre and the Siege of the Sogdian Rock.
The Macedonians built a mole , a raised spit of earth across the water, by piling stones up on a natural land bridge that extended underwater to the island, and although the Tyrians rallied by sending a fire ship to destroy the towers, and captured the mole in a swarming frenzy, the city eventually fell to the Macedonians after a seven-month siege.
In complete contrast to Tyre, Sogdian Rock was captured by stealthy attack. Alexander used commando-like tactics to scale the cliffs and capture the high ground, and the demoralized defenders surrendered.
The importance of siege warfare in the ancient period should not be underestimated. One of the contributing causes of Hannibal 's inability to defeat Rome was his lack of siege engines , thus, while he was able to defeat Roman armies in the field, he was unable to capture Rome itself.
The legionary armies of the Roman Republic and Empire are noted as being particularly skilled and determined in siege warfare.
An astonishing number and variety of sieges, for example, formed the core of Julius Caesar 's mid-1st-century BC conquest of Gaul modern France.
The Romans held the ground in between the two walls. The besieged Gauls, facing starvation, eventually surrendered after their relief force met defeat against Caesar's auxiliary cavalry.
During the Roman-Persian Wars , siege warfare was extensively being used by both sides. The early Muslims, led by the Islamic prophet Muhammad , made extensive use of sieges during military campaigns.
The first use was during the Invasion of Banu Qaynuqa. The Banu Qaynuqa were a Jewish tribe expelled by Muhammad for allegedly breaking the treaty known as the Constitution of Medina   : by pinning the clothes of a Muslim woman, which led to her being stripped naked.
A Muslim killed a Jew in retaliation, and the Jews in turn killed the Muslim man. This escalated to a chain of revenge killings, and enmity grew between Muslims and the Banu Qaynuqa, leading to the siege of their fortress.
The second siege was during the Invasion of Banu Nadir. According to The Sealed Nectar , the siege did not last long; the Banu Nadir Jews willingly offered to comply with the Muhammad's order and leave Madinah.
Their caravan counted loaded camels, including their chiefs, Huyai bin Akhtab, and Salam bin Abi Al-Huqaiq, who left for Khaibar, whereas another party shifted to Syria.
Muhammad seized their weapons, land, houses, and wealth. Amongst the other booty he managed to capture, there were 50 armours, 50 helmets, and swords.
This booty was exclusively Muhammad's because no fighting was involved in capturing it. He divided the booty at his own discretion among the early Emigrants and two poor Helpers, Abu Dujana and Suhail bin Haneef.
Even if they could not enter some of the more well-fortified cities, they used innovative battle tactics to grab hold of the land and the people:.
Another Mongol tactic was to use catapults to launch corpses of plague victims into besieged cities. The disease-carrying fleas from the bodies would then infest the city, and the plague would spread, allowing the city to be easily captured, although this transmission mechanism was not known at the time.
In , the bodies of Mongol warriors of the Golden Horde who had died of plague were thrown over the walls of the besieged Crimean city of Kaffa now Feodosiya.
It has been speculated that this operation may have been responsible for the advent of the Black Death in Europe. On the first night while laying siege to a city, the leader of the Mongol forces would lead from a white tent : if the city surrendered, all would be spared.
On the second day, he would use a red tent: if the city surrendered, the men would all be killed, but the rest would be spared.
On the third day, he would use a black tent: no quarter would be given. However, the Chinese were not completely defenseless, and from AD until , the Southern Song Chinese held out against the enormous barrage of Mongol attacks.
Much of this success in defense lay in the world's first use of gunpowder i. The Chinese of the Song period also discovered the explosive potential of packing hollowed cannonball shells with gunpowder.
Written later around in the Huo Long Jing , this manuscript of Jiao Yu recorded an earlier Song-era cast-iron cannon known as the 'flying-cloud thunderclap eruptor' fei yun pi-li pao.
The manuscript stated that Wade—Giles spelling :. The shells phao are made of cast iron, as large as a bowl and shaped like a ball. Inside they contain half a pound of 'magic' gunpowder shen huo.
They are sent flying towards the enemy camp from an eruptor mu phao ; and when they get there a sound like a thunder-clap is heard, and flashes of light appear.
If ten of these shells are fired successfully into the enemy camp, the whole place will be set ablaze During the Ming Dynasty AD — , the Chinese were very concerned with city planning in regards to gunpowder warfare.
The site for constructing the walls and the thickness of the walls in Beijing's Forbidden City were favoured by the Chinese Yongle Emperor r.
For more, see Technology of the Song dynasty. The introduction of gunpowder and the use of cannons brought about a new age in siege warfare.
Cannons were first used in Song dynasty China during the early 13th century, but did not become significant weapons for another years or so.
In early decades, cannons could do little against strong castles and fortresses, providing little more than smoke and fire. External Reviews. Metacritic Reviews.
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Add the first question. English I would just like to say that I lived through the siege and the shelling of Sarajevo for one and a half years.
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